Radix SortFirst thing first what is sorting ?Sorting is any process of arranging items systematically, and has two common, yet distinct meanings: ordering: arranging items in a sequence ordered by some criterion; categorizing: grouping items with similar properties.[source-Wikipedia]About the sorting AlgorithmsThe lower bound of all the comparison based sorting algorithms( Merge sort, Heap sort, Quick sort, …etc) is Ω(nLogn), i.e.., cannot be better than nLogn.Counting sort/Pigeon sort is a linear time sorting algorithm that sort in O(n+k) time when elements are in range from 1 to k.Where it(counting-sort) Fails?when elements reaches in the range from 1 to n2as in that case it will take O(n2) which is worst than the above mentioned sorting algorithms.can we do better than O(nLogn) for the range 1 to n2?The answer isRadix sort.The Idea of Radix sortThe idea is to sort digit by digit starting from the least significant digit and moving to the most significant digit. here counting-sort is used as a subroutine to sort.The Radix sort AlgorithmFor all i where i is from the least significant to the most significant digit of the number do the followingsort the input array using counting sort according to its i’th digit.ExampleOriginal, unsorted list:170, 45, 75, 90, 802, 24, 2, 66Sorting by least significant digit (1s place) gives: [Notice that we keep 802 before 2, because 802 occurred before 2 in the original list, and similarly for pairs 170 & 90 and 45 & 75.]170, 90, 802,2, 24, 45, 75, 66Sorting by next digit (10s place) gives: [Notice that 802 again comes before 2 as 802 comes before 2 in the previous list.]802, 2,24,45,66, 170,75,90Sorting by most significant digit (100s place) gives:2, 24, 45, 66, 75, 90,170,802What is the running time of Radix Sort?Let there be d digits in input integers. Radix Sort takes O(d*(n+b)) time where b is the base for representing numbers, for example, for decimal system, b is 10. What is the value of d? If k is the maximum possible value, then d would be O(logb(k)). So overall time complexity is O((n+b) * logb(k)). Which looks more than the time complexity of comparison based sorting algorithms for a large k. Let us first limit k. Let k <= ncwhere c is a constant. In that case, the complexity becomes O(nLogb(n)). But it still doesn’t beat comparison based sorting algorithms.What if we make value of b larger?. What should be the value of b to make the time complexity linear? If we set b as n, we get the time complexity as O(n). In other words, we can sort an array of integers with range from 1 to ncif the numbers are represented in base n (or every digit takes log2(n) bits).Is Radix Sort preferable to Comparison based sorting algorithms like Quick-Sort?If we have log2n bits for every digit, the running time of Radix appears to be better than Quick Sort for a wide range of input numbers. The constant factors hidden in asymptotic notation are higher for Radix Sort and Quick-Sort uses hardware caches more effectively. Also, Radix sort uses counting sort as a subroutine and counting sort takes extra space to sort numbers.Implementation of Radix SortFollowing is a simple C implementation of Radix Sort. For simplicity, the value of d is assumed to be 10.#include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> int getMax(int arr[], int n){ // A function to get maximum value in array arr[]; int max = arr[0]; //don't forget to initialise the value of max, either this way or initialize it with a number lower than the minimum of the given array for (int i = 1; i < n; i++){ if (arr[i] > max){ max = arr[i]; } } return max; } void countSort(int arr[], int n, int exp){ // A function to do counting sort of arr[] according to // the digit represented by exp. int output[n]; // output array int i, count[10] = {0}; for (i = 0; i < n; i++){ // Store count of occurrences in count[] count[ (arr[i]/exp)%10 ]++; } for (i = 1; i < 10; i++){ // Change count[i] so that count[i] now contains actual position of this digit in output[] count[i] += count[i - 1]; } for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--){ // Build the output array output[count[ (arr[i]/exp)%10 ] - 1] = arr[i]; //read carefully how the index is manipulated relating arr[], ccount, output. count[ (arr[i]/exp)%10 ]--; } for (i = 0; i < n; i++){ // Copy the output array to arr[], so that arr[] now contains sorted numbers according to current digit arr[i] = output[i]; } } void RadixSort(int arr[], int n){ // The function that sorts arr[] of size n using Radix Sort int m = getMax(arr, n); // Find the maximum number to know number of digits // number, exp is passed. exp is 10^i where i is current digit number for (int exp = 1; m/exp > 0; exp *= 10){ countSort(arr, n, exp); } } // function to print our final sorted array void print(int arr[], int n){ for (int i = 0; i < n; i++){ printf("%d ",arr[i]); } printf("n"); } int main(){ int arr[] = {170, 45, 75, 90, 802, 24, 2, 66}; int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]); // sizeof(arr)=8*4 Bytes ( (size of the array) * (size of each element) ) //sizeof(arr[0])=4 Bytes (size of an int variable). RadixSort(arr, n); print(arr, n); return 0; }Output:2 24 45 66 75 90 170 802for more sorting Algorithms Follow upPrateek'sSortingnote.